WimsBits linux xubuntu 18.04 lts

xubuntu 18.04 lts manual  

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linux xubuntu 18.04 lts

Install and configure xubuntu 18.04 lts linux on a PC.
The (daily used) xubuntu-18.04-desktop-amd64.iso , for use on the AMD64 and the i386 for (Intel Core2 CPU), works fine.

Install xubuntu 18.04 lts linux packages on:
the motherboards:
(in var/log/kern.log.1 and Xorg.0.log)

MSI 790GX-G65 (my vintage PC):

DMI: MS-7576/790GX-G65 (MS-7576), BIOS V4.4 02/21/2011
Memory: 1723244K/1834168K available
tsc: Detected 2913.248 MHz processor
Calibrating delay loop (skipped), value calculated using timer frequency.. 5826.49 BogoMIPS
smpboot: CPU0: AMD Athlon(tm) II X2 245 Processor
smpboot: Total of 2 processors activated (11652.99 BogoMIPS)
Only stated for the fun of it. All below is related to the newer PC.

MSI X370 sli plus:

DMI: MSI MS-7A33/X370 SLI PLUS (MS-7A33), BIOS 3.H0 01/22/2019
Memory: 8013732K/8332696K available
tsc: Detected 2999.663 MHz processor
Calibrating delay loop (skipped), value calculated using timer frequency.. 5999.32 BogoMIPS
smpboot: CPU0: AMD Ryzen 7 1700 Eight-Core Processor(R)
smpboot: Total of 16 processors activated (95989.21 BogoMIPS)

radeon kernel modesetting enabled
initializing kernel modesetting CAICOS
Detected VRAM RAM=1024M, BAR=256M
Loading CAICOS Microcode
kernel: MODSIGN: Couldn't get UEFI dbx list

LoadModule: "radeon"
RADEON: Driver for ATI/AMD Radeon chipsets
RADEON(0): Chipset: "CAICOS"

No PC power-down after shutdown with: "ACPI Disabled:"

"ACPI Disabled" results in no power-down after shutdown, on vintage PC.
open bios
configure: ACPI Function: Enabled
configure: ACPI Standby State: S3
All other Power settings can be configured disabled or off.
save bios

Parole has no sound: Dummy Output.

Audio mixer shows, while Parole is playing music: Dummy Output, a moving sound level but no sound
Directory with test sounds in linux installation: /usr/share/sounds/sound-icons/piano-3.wav
Solution: type: in shell:
lsmod | grep snd_hda_intel
snd_hda_intel 40960 2
lspci -nnk | grep -A2 Audio
26:00.1 Audio device [0403]: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. [AMD/ATI] Caicos HDMI
Kernel driver in use should be: snd_hda_intel
solution below, if it shows: 'snd_hda_intel'

kern.log shows:
snd_hda_codec_realtek hdaudioC1D0: autoconfig for ALC892: line_outs=4 (0x14/0x15/0x16/0x17/0x0) type:line
snd_hda_intel 0000:28:00.3: enabling device
fix below:
open in 'sudo mousepad': '/etc/modprobe.d/alsa-base.conf file'
add at the end of the file: 'options snd-hda-intel model=generic'
do not change anything else; instead of 'generic' you could try 'auto'
reboot PC

Volume, Audio mixer
Display on: HDMI 1.4a
tab: Configuration: Caicos HDMI Audio [Radeon...
Profile: Digital Stereo (HDMI) Output
tab: Configuration: Family 17h ... HD Audio Controller
Profile: Analog Surround 5.1 Output
tab: Playback: AudioIPCServer...: Caicos HDMI Audio [Radeon...
Sound output on "HDMI Audio".
Also sound on Dual-Link DVI-D via DVI-HDMI adapter and HDMI cable. (Max Resolution: 2560 x 1600 @60 Hz)

Volume, Audio mixer
Display on: vga or D-sub 15
tab: Configuration: Caicos HDMI Audio [Radeon...
Profile: Digital Stereo (HDMI) Output
tab: Configuration: Family 17h ... HD Audio Controller
Profile: Analog Surround 5.1 Output
tab: Playback: AudioIPCServer...: Family 17h ... HD Audio Controller
Sound output on "speaker_outs".
No sound on "HDMI Audio".

Ethernet Network disconnects: link down

Network disconnects, after trying to connect, kernel log shows a link down.
kernel: r8169 Gigabit Ethernet driver 2.3LK-NAPI loaded
r8169 0000:21:00.0 enp33s0: link down
r8169 0000:21:00.0 enp33s0: link up
r8169 0000:21:00.0 enp33s0: link down
kernel: r8169 0000:21:00.0 eth0: RTL8168h/8111h
Internet suggests more than once: disable Automatic Link negotiation, set it to speed 100 Mb/s and duplex full.
Network Connections, select connection, tab: Ethernet
Wake on Lan: Default or Ignore
Link negotiation: Ignore or Manual: Speed: 100 Mb/s and Duplex: Full.
Link negotiation: Automatic and 1 Gb/s disconnect, 10 Mb/s remains untested, but could do, with a maximum internet download of 60 Mb/s or 7,5MB/s.
tab: IPv4 settings:
Method: Automatic (DHCP)
tab: IPv6 settings:
Method: Ignore

DHCP started working again recently (July 2019) on RTL8168.
Sometimes with the default value: Link negotiation: Ignore
Or with Link negotiation: Manual, Speed: 100 Mb/s and Duplex: Full.
Both on RTL8168d/8111d and RTL8168h/8111h.

Numlock is always "on," before and after logging in on xubuntu 18.04 lts.

Always "on" numlock annoyance. All of a sudden, since xubuntu 18.04 lts, numlock is always on, except when you have a laptop.
Well, I happen to have a PC with laptop keyboard: 85 keys I counted:
Q-Board Office 85 Mini Keyboard
lsusb: Bus 001 Device 002: ID 0566:3006 Monterey International Corp.
bInterfaceClass 3 Human Interface Device
bInterfaceSubClass 1 Boot Interface Subclass
bInterfaceProtocol 1 Keyboard

This is how to switch numlock off forever in the scripts settings of this linux version.

First open Bios or EFI and set numlock to off.
Then: Applications Menu, All Settings, Keyboard, tab: Behavior: unselect: Restore num lock state on startup.
(restores Bios locked setting)

Go to the file below, rename the original one with e.g. the extension -orig and copy one to adapt for this purpose. Use sudo of course.
The third or fourth line says: NUMLOCK=auto.
The file is a setting and a script.
Change it to: NUMLOCK=off
Remove the entire script, so everything below, and replace it with the remark: # script removed

Go to the file below, rename the original one with e.g. the extension -orig and copy one to adapt for this purpose. Use sudo of course.
The last line says: NUMLOCK=auto.
Add a line and change the line above into:
# changed from auto to off

Check if you made no errors, a hanging PC should not occur.

Go to the file below, check if it exists. It will.
The library numlockx is present in /usr/bin/ in this installation. So no need to install it.
End of numlock "on." No unlocking before and after every login or screensaver unlock any-more.

Another problem: The default driver for a Brother HL-2140 laser printer does not print.

All of the MSI X370 sli plus is working nicely with xubuntu 18.04 lts installed, without 3rd party software.

MSI X370 sli plus

MSI X370 sli plus, the hardware list:
Realtek ALC892 sound
Realtek RTL8111 / 8168
MSI AMD Radeon rs230 1 GB vga (sysinfo: caicos pro or radeon hd 7450)
AMD Ryzen 7 1700 Processor, 8 cpu cores, 16 threads
be quiet Pure Base 600
Be quiet! Pure Power 10 400W
Crucial Ballistix Elite DDR4 4 GB 3000 MHz
WD Black WD5003AZEX 500GB

xubuntu 18.04 lts linux, AMD 64 bit, PC playing music and video. That is what you get when you install the larger part of what can be found below.

Startup disk with xubuntu 18.04 does not boot.

Startup disk boots with error: Missing parameter in configuration file. Keyword: path, etc.
Solution: type: "help" at boot shell
Menu appears. Press: Enter.
Error appeared only when CRT monitor was connected, with TFT it booted fine.

(X)Ubuntu versions and code names:

ubuntu 4.10 Warty Warthog
ubuntu 5.04 Hoary Hedgehog
ubuntu 5.10 Breezy Badger
ubuntu 6.06 LTS Dapper Drake (my first xubuntu)
ubuntu 6.10 Edgy Eft
ubuntu 7.04 Feisty Fawn
ubuntu 7.10 Gutsy Gibbon
ubuntu 8.04 LTS Hardy Heron
ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid Ibex
ubuntu 9.04 Jaunty Jackalope
ubuntu 9.10 Karmic Koala
ubuntu 10.04 LTS Lucid Lynx
ubuntu 10.10 Maverick Meerkat
ubuntu 11.04 Natty Narwhal
ubuntu 11.10 Oneiric Ocelot
ubuntu 12.04 LTS Precise Pangolin (5 year), xubuntu 12.04 LTS (3 year)
ubuntu 12.10 Quantal Quetzal: dash search has come: uninstall: sudo apt-get purge unity-lens-shopping, log off an on
ubuntu 13.04 Raring Ringtail
ubuntu 13.10 Saucy Salamander
ubuntu 14.04 LTS Trusty Tahr (5 year), xubuntu 14.04.1 lts (3 year), xubuntu: dash search: sudo apt-get purge unity-scope-home
Package 'unity-scope-home' is not installed, so not removed)
ubuntu 14.10 Utopic Unicorn
ubuntu 15.04 Vivid Vervet
ubuntu 15.10 Wily Werewolf
ubuntu 16.04.1 LTS Xenial Xerus: (5 year), xubuntu 16.04.1 LTS (3 year) : dash search: sudo apt-get purge unity-scope-home: Package 'unity-scope-home' is not installed, so not removed
ubuntu 16.10 Yakkety Yak
ubuntu 17.04 Zesty Zapus
ubuntu 17.10 Artful Aardvark
ubuntu 18.04 LTS Bionic Beaver: (5 year), xubuntu 18.04.1 LTS (3 year): check menu, system settings, privacy: opt out of data collection; dash search: sudo apt-get purge unity-scope-home: Package 'unity-scope-home' is not installed, so not removed
ubuntu 18.10 Cosmic Cuttlefish
ubuntu 19.04 Disco Dingo
ubuntu 19.10 Eoan Ermine
Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa
logged in files: var/log/installer media-info or telemetry or:
Bash shell: cat /etc/lsb-release

Linux xubuntu 18.04 lts kernel version:

Kernel version at installation date, before first update:
Linux xubbo-1804 4.15.0-20.21-generic 4.15.17
Kernel version at installation date, after first update:
var/log/kern.log or: Shell: uname -a, uname -r
Linux xubbo-1804 4.15.0-43-generic
Current kernel version for AMD:
Linux xubbo-1804 4.15.0-96.87-generic #92-Ubuntu SMP

Bash shell apt commands to install xubuntu 18.04 lts, AMD64, linux software packages:

The shell apt software (installing) commands:
Shell apt software commands examples:
sudo apt-get update: resynchronizes the package index files from their sources
apt-cache search ...
apt-cache show (package)
apt-cache depends (package)
apt-cache rdepends (package)
apt list --installed
sudo apt-get check (package)
sudo apt-get install (package)
sudo apt-get purge (package): removing a package and its configuration files too
sudo apt-get autoremove: removes packages that were automatically installed to satisfy dependencies for other packages and are now no longer needed
sudo apt-get remove (package): removing a package, leaving its configuration files on the system
sudo apt-get autoclean: clears out the local repository of retrieved package files, but it only removes package files that can no longer be downloaded

Set xubuntu 18.04 lts linux, AMD64, sources to add packages with synaptic package manager:

Set sources to add packages, change in: Applications Menu: Settings, Software & Updates:

ubuntu software:
Canonical-supported free and open-source software - main
community-maintained free and open-source software - universe
proprietary drivers for devices - restricted
software restricted by copyright or legal issues - multiverse
Download from: http://ftp.uni-mainz.de/ubuntu
or: http://ftp.uni-stuttgart.de/ubuntu/
or: http://ftp.uni-kassel.de/ubuntu/ubuntu/
or: ftp://ftp.fu-berlin.de/linux/ubuntu/

other software:
Install updates from:
Important security updates (Bionic-security)
Recommended updates (Bionic-updates)
Automatically check for updates: daily
When there are security, other, updates: display immediately

Set sources to add packages, change in: Applications Menu: Accessories, Terminal Emulator: sudo mousepad /etc/apt/sources.list
uncomment source lines and get all the following binaries, deb, deb http and deb-src:
deb http://ftp.uni-mainz.de/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted
deb http://ftp.uni-mainz.de/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted
deb http://ftp.uni-mainz.de/ubuntu/ bionic universe
deb http://ftp.uni-mainz.de/ubuntu/ bionic-updates universe
deb http://ftp.uni-mainz.de/ubuntu/ bionic multiverse
deb http://ftp.uni-mainz.de/ubuntu/ bionic-updates multiverse
deb http://ftp.uni-mainz.de/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted
deb http://ftp.uni-mainz.de/ubuntu/ bionic-security universe
deb http://ftp.uni-mainz.de/ubuntu/ bionic-security multiverse

Customise user account to some admin tasks and sudo member:

Give account some admin tasks and sudo membership, Applications Menu: Settings, Users and Groups: accounts: Advanced Settings: User Privileges: select: configure printers, monitor system logs, use scanners, use video devices ok
manage groups: sudo: properties: select (all) accounts, ok, close, log off and on
manage groups: users: properties: select used user account, ok, close (optional)

Configure File Manager on Xfce linux xubuntu 18.04 lts desktop with Xfce All Settings:

File Manager:
menu: edit, preferences:
Default View: view new folders using: detailed list view
Show thumbnails: Local Files only
Date: Format: Today at 17.00.01
tab: advanced: unselect: enable volume management, close

Change xfce 4.12 Desktop GUI in xubuntu 18.04 lts

To change the xfce Desktop GUI:
Applications Menu, Settings, Appearance
tab: Style:
Greybird, Adwaita, or Orion
tab: Icons
elementary xfce
All Settings
tab: General
Opacity 50%
All Settings
tab: Items
Add new item to this panel:
workspace switcher
Add, Close
Delete item to this panel:
power manager plugin
All Settings
Window Manager
tab: Style:
tab: Focus:
New Window focus:
Automatically give focus to newly created windows
All Settings
Window Manager Tweaks
tab: Focus
When a windows raises itself:
Do nothing
tab: Workspaces: unselect: Use the mouse wheel on de desktop to switch workspaces
unselect: Wrap workspaces depending on the actual desktop layout
All Settings
tab: Behaviour:
Restore num lock state on startup: unselect
Repeat delay: 500
Repeat speed: 50
Blink delay: 500
tab: Application Short-cuts:
check: xfce4-popup-whiskermenu: Ctrl+Escape
tab: Layout:
Use system defaults: unselect
Keyboard model: Generic 105-key PC (intl.)
Keyboard layout: English (US); English (US, intl., with dead keys)
All Settings
By the way: super is the windows key, primary is the control key.
Test and enjoy the result.
All Settings
Power Manager
tab: Security
Automatically lock the session: When the screensaver is activated
select: Lock screen when system is going for sleep
All Settings
Removable Drives and Media
tab: Storage
unselect: all but: mount removeable drives when hot-plugged
tab: Multimedia
unselect: all
Session and Start-up
tab: Splash: mice
tab: Application Autostart
unselect not present hardware, if needed
All Settings

Change incomplete url prefix in firefox location bar in xubuntu 18.04 lts

Show prefix http, turn on tracking protection and turn off location aware browsing: in firefox location bar:
type in the address bar: about:config
look for:
browser.urlbar.trimURLs click twice and change it to: false
geo.enabled click twice and change it to: false
privacy.trackingprotection.enabled click twice and change it to: true
close tab

xubuntu 18.04 lts, Intel x86, linux additional software packages:

Install AMD Radeon rs 230 driver:

Driver install AMD Radeon rs 230
have a look at: /var/log/Xorg.0.log
loading driver: radeon
RADEON: Driver for ATI/AMD Radeon chip-sets
RADEON(0): Chipset: "CAICOS"
needed xubuntu package: xserver-xorg-video-radeon
apt list --installed
package already installed

Installing flash or gnash:

Close firefox before installing flash or gnash:
gnash: GNU Gnash: plays youtube.com, but not uitzendinggemist.nl
version: 0.8.11~git20160608-1.4
GNU Gnash is based on GameSWF and supports most SWF v7 features and some SWF v8 and v9. SWF v10 is not supported by GNU Gnash.
browser-plugin-gnash: gnash and plugin not installed this time
sudo apt-get purge and sudo apt-get autoremove, for both gnash packages
flashplugin-installer: plays youtube.com and old flash movies

verify flash version: https://helpx.adobe.com/flash-player.html
version check, version at installation date: version:, browser: Firefox linux
current flash version: is latest Version amd64 xubuntu

Installing java:

To install java, run in Shell: apt-cache show default-jre
points to java (compatible)recommended runtime: openjdk-11-jre for AMD64
points to java (compatible) recommended runtime: openjdk-11-jre for i386
Depends: openjdk-11-jre
Suggests: default-java-plugin

close firefox before installing java:
close browser, just in case
required, so install: openjdk-11-jre, default-jre and default-java-plugin
E: Package 'default-java-plugin' has no installation candidate
sudo apt-get purge default-jre, openjdk-11-jre and default-java-plugin
sudo apt-get autoremove
java --version: No such file or directory
Oracle recommends: java 8.
apt-cache show openjdk-8-jre
Provides: java2-runtime, java5-runtime, java6-runtime, java7-runtime, java8-runtime
Suggests: icedtea-8-plugin
close browser, just in case
required, so install:openjdk-8-jre and icedtea-8-plugin

check version: java -version
openjdk version "1.8.0_191"
OpenJDK Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_191-8u191-b12-2ubuntu0.18.04.1-b12)
OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.191-b12, mixed mode)

sudo update-alternatives --config java: There is only one alternative in link group java (providing /usr/bin/java):
Nothing to configure.

verify java version: http://www.javatester.org/version.html
verify java version: http://java.com/en/download/installed.jsp
verify java version: http://www.java.com/en/download/installed.jsp?detect=jre
check version at installation date: java -version: openjdk version "1.8.0_191"
current java version: openjdk version "1.8.0_191"

xubuntu 18.04 lts, AMD64, linux additional software packages:

Other additional software packages:

Install additional software packages, run in Shell: file-roller: already installed: Engrampa archive manager for GNOME
abiword: AbiWord is full-featured, efficient word processing
replaces: LibreOffice Writer from: libreoffice, containing: calc, math and writer here libreoffice-writer
gnumeric: spreadsheet application
replaces: libreoffice-calc, libreoffice-math,
sudo apt-get purge libreoffice-calc
sudo apt-get purge libreoffice-math
sudo apt-get purge libreoffice-writer
sudo apt-get purge libreoffice-base-core
sudo apt-get purge libreoffice-core
sudo apt-get purge libreoffice (no purges)
sudo apt-get purge ure
sudo apt-get autoremove
no libreoffice icon left

camorama: small utility to view and save images from a webcam
firestarter was removed from repository, zentyal-firewall is meant for the small business server.
gftp-gtk: linux ftp client
gimp: GIMP is an advanced picture editor.
gnome-sound-recorder: replaces : gnome-media
gnome-system-monitor: overview of available resources such as CPU and memory
gufw: linux Firewall Configuration
smartmontools: linux SMART program
sysinfo: system info
usb-creator-gtk: startup disk creator

Install linux xubuntu 18.04 lts gstreamer0.10-plugins for gmusicbrowser or parole, or movie, sound, or music in firefox:

Not all movies, sound, or music plays in firefox, gmusicbrowser or parole, so install, if not yet installed:
for gmusicbrowser or parole:
gmusicbrowser: default graphic jukebox for large collections of mp3/ogg/flac/mpc files
parole: default media player based on GStreamer framework
gstreamer1.0-fluendo-mp3 is the newest version (0.10.32.debian-1) : Need to get 88,9 kB of archives, installed
gstreamer1.0-gl is the newest version ( 1.14.0-1ubuntu1)
gstreamer1.0-libav is the newest version ( 1.14.0-1ubuntu1)
gstreamer1.0-plugins-bad is the newest version ( 1.14.0-1ubuntu1)
gstreamer1.0-plugins-base is the newest version (1.14.0-2ubuntu1)
gstreamer1.0-plugins-good is the newest version ( 1.14.0-1ubuntu1)
gstreamer1.0-pulseaudio is the newest version ( 1.14.0-1ubuntu1)
gstreamer1.0-tools is the newest version ( 1.14.0-1ubuntu1)
Recommends: gstreamer1.0-x
gstreamer1.0-x is the newest version (1.14.0-2ubuntu1)
libdvdread4 is the newest version (6.0.0-1)
Not needed: gstreamer1.0-nice
Parole has already been installed to play video and music files. No longer a DVD player is present.

Some handsome Shell commands, for e.g. wiping, formatting, syncing files on two a disks:

Using dd, fdisk, mke2fs, parted and rsync.

more information about a command is found by running man before or --help after a command in Shell

sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdb
dd: writing to '/dev/sdb': No space left on device
1250263729+0 records in
1250263728+0 records out
640135028736 bytes (640 GB, 596 GiB) copied, 34581,7 s, 18,5 MB/s, taking 9 hours, 36 minutes on Western Digital Caviar Black 640 GB 7200 RPM
sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdc
dd: writing to '/dev/sdc': No space left on device
312581809+0 records in
312581808+0 records out
160041885696 bytes (160 GB, 149 GiB) copied, 13866 s, 11,5 MB/s, taking 3 hours, 51 minutes on Seagate Barracuda 160 GB 7200.10

sudo fdisk -l /dev/sdc
Disk /dev/sdc: 125 MiB, 131072000 bytes, 256000 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x000fc933
Disk /dev/sdc doesn't contain a valid partition table

/dev/sdc1 is mounted; will not make a filesystem here!
lsof -U | less
killall Thunar

sudo mke2fs -b 4096 -c -L dataxy -n -v -t ext4 -T big /dev/sdc1
(demo, remove -n for real format), 320 GB taking 58 minutes on a seagate laptop thin hdd 320 GB 7200 RPM

sudo mke2fs -b 4096 -c -L dataxy -n -v -t ext4 -T big /dev/sdc1
(demo, remove -n for real format), 160 GB taking less than 45 minutes on a seagate barracuda 160 GB 7200.10

sudo mke2fs -b 4096 -c -L dataxy -v -t ext4 -T big /dev/sdc1
mke2fs 1.42.9 (4-Feb-2014)
fs_types for mke2fs.conf resolution: 'ext4', 'big'
Filesystem label=dataxy
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
4886528 inodes, 39072718 blocks
1953635 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
1193 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
4096 inodes per group
Superblock backupsSuperblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
4096000, 7962624, 11239424, 20480000, 23887872

sudo parted /dev/sdc print
Model: ATA ST3160815A (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdc: 160GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Number Start End Size Type File system Flags
1 32,3kB 160GB 160GB primary ext4

rsync -av /media/sda4/datax/ /media/data/datayz/datay/ (archive mode)
rsync -rv /media/sda4/datax/ /media/data/datayz/datay/ (recurse into directories)
disk with ext4: sent 80,993,043,525 bytes received 68,163 bytes 90,952,399.43 bytes/sec, 86,7 MB/sec on a seagate laptop thin hdd 320 GB 7200 RPM.
disk with ext4: sent 80,993,043,519 bytes received 68,107 bytes 90,343,682.80 bytes/sec, 86,2 MB/sec on a seagate laptop thin hdd 320 GB 7200 RPM, so 75,4 GB takes almost 20 minutes.
disk with ext4: sent 80,822,496,291 bytes received 72,173 bytes 66,989,281.78 bytes/sec 63,9 MB/sec on a seagate barracuda 160 GB 7200.10, 75,3 GB takes 20,1 minutes.
disk with ext3: sent 78,872,829,052 bytes received 75,859 bytes 44699861.10 bytes/sec, 42,6 MB/sec on a seagate barracuda 160 GB 7200.10, so 73,4 GB takes 29 minutes and 24 seconds.

Install and configure linux xubuntu 18.04 lts hardware:

Install and configure hardware:
first check out about hardware and detection:
Run in Shell: tail -f /var/log/syslog
Run in Shell: dmesg, or: lspci -v, lspci -vvnn, or: lsusb -v, or: lshw, or: lsmod
(To see whether the hardware was detected)

Add a partition, on xubuntu 18.04 lts linux, e.g. a primary disk:

Mount a physical disk in linux, requirements:
Print partition table in sector order format:
Run in Shell:
sudo cfdisk /dev/sda (supports MBR DOS, GPT, SUN and SGI disk)
or: sudo fdisk -l (supports GPT, MBR DOS, SUN and SGI disk)
lsblk (lists information about all available or the specified block devices)
or: sudo parted /dev/sdc print (supports GPT and MBR DOS)

Add partition:
sudo cfdisk /dev/sda
select: GPT
select: menu: new, type, Linux filesystem, write, quit

Startup linux fdisk: sudo cfdisk /dev/sda
select: menu: new, primary, size in MB, beginning, write, quit
type: 0B, 83, 82 (W95 FAT32, Linux, Linux / swap Solaris)
partitions: EFI system partition, min. 35 MB: 100, os: 40000, home: 20000, data: what is left
the root disk uses about 6,7 GB
Remark: only four primary partitions per physical disk are possible and the boot partition should be within 1024 cylinders because of bios limitations
choose from: man mke2fs or man mkdosfs

Make fat32, check for bad blocks, fat32, name volume: EFI, sectors-per-cluster: 4096, verbose, device /dev/sdb1:
sudo mkdosfs -c -F 32 -n EFI -S 4096 -v /dev/sdb1
or for an usb sticky, linux & winxp readable:
sudo mkdosfs -c -F 32 -n data4gb -v /dev/sdc1

Format 2GB fat32 SDcard for phone
Format SDcard 2 GB (linux vfat b W95 FAT32) for mobile phone: check for bad blocks, auto fat choice, name volume: SDC, verbose, device /dev/sdc1:
sudo mkdosfs -c -n SDC -v /dev/sdc1

Make ext4: block size: 4096, check for bad blocks, label volume: dataxy, no execute but demo will be done first, verbose, type filesystem: ext4, type filesystem usage: default, device
(demo, remove -n for real format)
mke2fs 1.44.1 (24-Mar-2018)
sudo mke2fs -b 4096 -c -L dataxy -n -v -t ext4 -T default /dev/sda4
Default ext3 and ext4 block size usually is 4096, see /etc/mke2fs.conf.
Format options:
Type filesystem usage: ext4 has a default file usage of inode_ratio of 16384, for disks of about 512 MB to 4 TB
Type filesystem usage: ext4 has a big file usage of inode_ratio 32768, for disks of about 4 to 16 TB.
Type filesystem usage: ext4 has a huge file usage of inode_ratio 65536, for disks of about 16 TB or greater.
mkfs creates:

This would be for for mke2fs.conf resolution: 'ext4' 'default':
Block size=4096
26861568 inodes
107424001 blocks
3279 block groups
32768 blocks per group
8192 inodes per group
on a 410 GB disk partition.
Superblock backups stored on blocks: 32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208, 4096000, 7962624, 11239424, 20480000, 23887872, 71663616, 78675968, 102400000
Checking for bad blocks, read-only test, done in: 52 min
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This would be for mke2fs.conf resolution: 'ext4' 'big':
Block size=4096
13430784 inodes
107424001 blocks
3279 block groups
32768 blocks per group
4096 inodes per group
on a 410 GB disk partition.

Mount a disk, add a directory not mounted yet on linux xubuntu 18.04 lts:

Add a directory in linux:
Create directory:
sudo mkdir /media/user03/data01/
to copy a file: cp file filecopy
when a type error requires a rename: sudo mv dataxz dataxy
when a type error requires a delete: rm -r dataxz
to change rights:
sudo chown -c -R root:userxy dataxy
sudo chmod -c -R g+w dataxy

Mount temporarily: sudo mount -t ext4 /dev/sda4 /media/user03/data01/
To find out what to add to fstab to identify the disk, the UUID, run:
lists new unpartitioned disks, not yet labelled e.g. gpt
sudo blkid
sudo blkid does not see unlabelled disks
other parameters:
file type
(defaults: sets specific standard rights: rw, suid, dev, exec, auto, nouser, and async
for vfat only:
iocharset=utf8: sets the character set and makes it case sensitive, just like ext is
umask=007: sets the rights: rgo: rwx,rwx,---
gid=46: for plugdev

for all file systems:
# <partition> <mount point> <file system> <mount options> <dump> <fsck order>
the 0 second last: for dump to decide to disable (or enable: 1) backing up of the device/partition
the 2 at the end: for running a file check not first, a 0 for not & a 1 for first: /, usually)

Mount, so add to /etc/fstab:
# added partition / disks
# dev/sda4: LABEL="data01"
UUID="9de03812-d17b-404d-9649-51b48ad22f59" /media/username/data01/ ext4 defaults,errors=remount-ro 1 2

Which could end up like this:

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
# Use 'blkid' to print the universally unique identifier for a
# device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name devices
# that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
# <file system> <mount point> <type> <options> <dump> <pass>
proc /proc proc nodev,noexec,nosuid 0 0

# / was on /dev/sda2 during installation
UUID=063eaefa-72a9-4c85-ae9d-732df1268088 / ext4 errors=remount-ro 0 1
# /boot/efi was on /dev/sda1 during installation
UUID=8D4E-5F61 /boot/efi vfat umask=0077 0 1
# /home was on /dev/sda3 during installation
UUID=77759a71-edd4-40c4-a0b0-7d39f4e86a9a /home ext4 defaults 0 2
/swapfile none swap sw 0 0

# added partition / disks
# dev/sda4: LABEL="data01"
UUID="9de03812-d17b-404d-9649-51b48ad22f59" /media/username/data01/ ext4 defaults,errors=remount-ro 1 2
# dev/sdb4: LABEL="data02"
UUID="2264f73d-963b-45c6-aa6f-b3892e515b61" /media/username/data02/ ext4 defaults,errors=remount-ro 1 2

to verify if swap is activated or not:
free -m
-------- total used free shared buff/cache available
Mem: 7985 849 5619 ...42... .....1516..... ..6821
Swap: 1766 .0.. 1766


Run in Shell:
ls -l
in home folder:
mkdir hodata
ls -l
mkdir hodata/even
mkdir hodata/odd
as backup destination of home folder and e-mail folder

cd ~
Create link:
ln -s /media/sdb3/hodata hodat

Install separate linux xubuntu 18.04 lts packages, a manual:

Install a compressed program by copying it in a directory on xubuntu 18.04 lts linux:

Install a compressed program by copying it:
Unzip: PasswordSafeSWT-0.9.0-SNAPSHOT-linux-x86_64.tar.bz2 file in: /home/username/unzip/
rename unzipped folder in: pwsafeswt-090
Run in Shell:
cd /home/username/unzip/
sudo cp -r pwsafeswt-090 /usr/local/pwsafeswt-090
cd /usr/local/
sudo chown -c -R root:username pwsafeswt-090
cd pwsafeswt-090/
sudo chmod -c -R g+x pwsafe.sh
run: sh pwsafe.sh
icon command line: sh /usr/local/pwsafeswt-090/pwsafe.sh

Firefox bookmarks, thunderbird old email files, thunderbird dictionaries, firefox dictionaries.

Install firefox previous installation bookmarks file and exporting bookmarks file on linux xubuntu 18.04 lts:

Install firefox previous bookmarks, firefox menu:
First, to view hidden files: in file manager (thunar): menu: view, show hidden files
path: /home/username/.mozilla/firefox/yq6kr7jz.default/bookmarkbackups/
bookmarks, show all bookmarks, import and backup, export bookmarks to html, browse, save
Install on your new xubuntu installation:
bookmarks, show all bookmarks, import and backup, import bookmarks from html, browse, select file: bookmarks.html, open

Install firefox dictionaries on xubuntu 18.04 lts linux:

Install dictionaries, on firefox 65.0.1 or later
install dictionary by menu if needed:
menu: tools, add-ons, get add-ons, find more add-ons, search dictionary, search, open dictonary page, add to firefox
make the dictionary files read only
or where it could also be installed, the application directory:
/usr/lib/firefox/browser/extensions/ linking to: /usr/lib/firefox-addons/extensions/
Rename the file links here with sudo rights, if you are uncomfortable with some languages.
default the en-GB or en_US files are present here
restart firefox, the added languages should work, but can be invisible with the the add-ons.

Install, configure, copy thunderbird previous installation email files on xubuntu 18.04 lts linux:

Install, configure, copy thunderbird previous installation email files:
Run thunderbird once first, cancel all and quit it
Copy the directory, like: /3f1bxk6.default/ and a: profiles.ini file in the following subdirectory from the old xubuntu installation:
to the new one:

Install thunderbird dictionaries on linux xubuntu 18.04 lts:

Install thunderbird 60.5.1 or later, dictionaries: thunderbird, menu:
new message, menu: options, check spelling, language: download more dictionaries
view website: search dictionary, search, download dictionary, add to thunderbird
destination like:
make the dictionary files read only
or where it could also be installed, the application directory:
default the en-GB or en_US files are present here
Rename the file extension here with sudo rights, if you are uncomfortable with some languages.
restart thunderbird

Miscellaneous configurations.

Open ports on Gufw firewall on linux xubuntu 18.04 lts:

Open ports on Gufw:
For p2p and some other networking, opening a port can be useful.
Rules: plus: tab: Simple, Name: tor rent, Policy: Allow, Direction: In, Protocol: both, Port: 51413, Add, Close
menu: firewall, quit

Install and configure a printer on xubuntu 18.04 lts linux: Brother HL-2140 laser printer:

Install and configure printer: Brother HL-2140:
Start up computer, login and plug in usb cable.
menu: applications menu, All Settings, Printers
Printers configured: HL-2140-series

menu: Printer, Properties
menu: Printer, Properties, Settings, Make and Model: Change, wait for: Cancel to disappear
Choose driver, Select printer from database, Makes: Brother, Forward
Choose driver, Models: HL-2140
Choose driver, Drivers: Brother HL-2140 Foomatic/Postscript [en] (current / recommended) is WRONG
Choose driver, Brother HL-2140 Foomatic/hl1250 [en], Forward
Existing Settings, Use the new PPD (Postscript Printer Description) as is, Apply, OK

select: printer, properties, policies: policies, error policy: retry job or abort job
select: printer options: general, page size: A4
select: printer options: general, resolution: 600x600 dpi, OK

Printer error: systemctl restart cups.service

Printer crash because of error: systemctl restart cups.service
Solution: type: in shell:
sudo cp /usr/share/cups/cupsd.conf.default /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
sudo service cups restart
One original script is copied to overwrite a corrupt, almost empty, copy.

Shell miscellaneous software and tools in xubuntu 18.04 lts linux:

Display contents of a file in various ways:
sudo cat "/etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/Ethernet m100full"
sudo cat "/etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/Ethernet m100full" > net.txt
sudo head "/etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/Ethernet m100full"
sudo tail "/etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/Ethernet m100full"
sudo more "/etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/Ethernet m100full"
sudo less "/etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/Ethernet m100full"
sudo grep "mac" "/etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/Ethernet m100full"

Prints contents of a file:
man lp
lp - print files

HL-2140-series is ready
no entries

lpoptions | tr " " '\n'

lpstat -p -d
printer HL-2140-series is idle. enabled since zo 19 apr 2020 09:50:39 CEST
system default destination: HL-2140-series

lp "net.txt"
request id is HL-2140-series-89 (1 file(s))

lp -o landscape net.txt
request id is HL-2140-series-92 (1 file(s))

find ~/ -name main*
find ~/ -mtime -3 -name main*

ldd program: print shared library dependencies

lspci -nn: Show both textual and numeric ID's (names & numbers) of devices.

run gufw, firewall, first
sudo iptables -L -v > firewall-rules.txt

show hanging programs:
run in Shell:
ps -f
pstree -hp
fg 1 (i.e.)
control + z
ps -f

touch, to change date and time of file:

change date and time of file:
touch -d "1998-01-02 14:02:00" testfile.txt
show result: ls --full-time
show readable characters: strings testfile.txt
show both hex and asci characters: xxd testfile.txt
show file statistics, access time etc.: file testfile.txt

show help of a command, e.g. apt:
man apt
info apt
apt -h
apt --help

shred, to overwrite file or disk with zero's:

overwrite file or disk random and with zero's with shred:
shred -v -z file zeroed.doc
shred --verbose /dev/sda5
remove, delete file:
rm zeroed.doc
remove, delete directories and file:
rm -r *

Some handsome Shell network commands:

Shell network commands which could be of help:
ifdown eth0
ifup eth0
ip a
ip addr show
ip addr add dev eth0
ip addr del dev eth0 172.16.2/12
ip link show
ip neigh show
ip route show
ip route add dev eth0 via
ip route del dev eth0 via
service iptables save
iptables -L -v
iptables -A INPUT -m limit --limit 15/minute -j LOG
iptables -A OUTPUT -m limit --limit 15/minute -j LOG
mtr: network diagnostic tool, with pings from the entire route
e.g.: mtr www.speedtest.nl
ping6 -I eth0 fc00::6
su - username: substitute user login with profile
tracepath, tracepath6: traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path
e.g.: tracepath

a network configuration example, for xubuntu 18.04:
/etc/hosts: localhost xubuntu18

/etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/Ethernet 3com
id=Ethernet m-100-full




lease {
interface "enp30s0";
option subnet-mask;
option routers;
option dhcp-lease-time 86400;
option dhcp-message-type 5;
option domain-name-servers;
option dhcp-server-identifier;
option domain-name "lan";
renew 6 2019/05/18 02:41:38;
rebind 6 2019/05/18 12:55:20;
expire 6 2019/05/18 15:55:20;

Vim manual, short:

Some Vim commands from a larger manual.
arrow keys: hjkl
first press key: escape
add: a
copy line: yy
delete: x
delete line: dd
down 5 lines: 5j
end of line: $
end of file: shift + G
find forward: /wordtofind, type n for further search
find backward: ?wordtofind, type n for further search
insert: i
insert line: o
insert from other window : insert mode, <ctrl>+<shift>+<ins>
join line: J
paste line: p
replace: r
scroll forward one screen: control + f
scroll backward one screen: control + b
search forward: /wordtofind, type n for further search
start of line: 0
write: :w
quit: :q
quit without save: :q!
undo: u
undo 3x: 3u
ASCI html codes, regularly used: # % & ( ) + - / : ; < = > ?@ | é ë € ï " ® ™
ASCI html codes, add: & before: #35; # #37; % amp; & #40; ( #41; ) #43; + #45; - #47; / #58; : #59; ; #60; < #61; = #62; > #63; ? #64; @ #124; | eacute; é euml; ë euro; € iuml; ï quot; " reg; ® trade; ™

How to check a linux vfat filesystem, on an usb stick? 

Checking an usb linux vfat filesystem.

Run in Shell:
sudo dosfsck -t /dev/sdb1
or: sudo dosfsck -a /dev/sdb1
-a automatically repair the filesystem
-n no-op, check non-interactively without changing
-r interactively repair the filesystem (default)
-t test for bad clusters
-v verbose mode

Run in Shell:
- sdb1 8:17 1 3,9G 0 part /media/user/DATA4GB
sudo dosfsck -t /dev/sdb1
\fsck.fat 4.1 (2017-01-24)
0x41: Dirty bit is set. Fs was not properly unmounted and some data may be corrupt.
1) Remove dirty bit
2) No action

Run in Shell:
sudo dosfsck -a /dev/sdb1
fsck.fat 4.1 (2017-01-24)
0x41: Dirty bit is set. Fs was not properly unmounted and some data may be corrupt.
Automatically removing dirty bit.
Performing changes.
/dev/sdb1: 87 files, 30046/126960 clusters
sudo dosfsck -t /dev/sdb1
fsck.fat 4.1 (2017-01-24)
/dev/sdb1: 87 files, 30046/126960 clusters

Unable to create file /tmp/test: No space left on device

When updating linux, the 'no space left on device error' appears and an 'unable to create file' message appears. kernel linux-headers modules take too much inodes and a lot of disk space.
Shell command: df -h
no full disk
Shell command: df -i
Filesystem    Inodes    IUsed      IFree      IUse%    Mounted on
/dev/sda6    915712   915712   148770   100%      /
after deleting some files:
Shell command: df -i
Filesystem    Inodes    IUsed      IFree      IUse%    Mounted on
/dev/sda6    915712   879291   36421     97%        /
Shell command: for i in /*; do echo $i; find $i | wc -l; done
many inodes in: /usr, in /usr/src
many files in: /usr, in /lib/modules/ and in /boot/

Shell command for latest kernel version: uname -a
dpkg -l | grep linux-headers
dpkg -l | grep linux-image
apt-cache search kernel
rc: package is in remove or deinstall state with and only config file left
ii: package is in install state and it is fully installed
sudo apt-get purge linux-headers-3.13.0-24-generic
sudo apt-get purge linux-headers-3.13.0-24
or better, because it removes headers and images:
sudo apt-get purge linux-image-3.13.0-24
sudo apt-get purge linux-image-extra-3.13.0-24
cleaned up files in /boot/: abi- and initrd.img-
for extra clean up: sudo apt-get autoremove

and more until you have about three latest kernel versions left
Shell command: df -h
Filesystem    Size    Used      Avail      Use%    Mounted on
/dev/sda6     14G    3.5G      9.7G       27%       /
Shell command: df -i
Filesystem    Inodes    IUsed      IFree      IUse%    Mounted on
/dev/sda6    915712   216075   699637   24%        /
to clean up the bootmenu, remove old kernels in grup:
sudo update-grub
sudo update-grub2

System program problem detected, on pop up, cancel, report problem

Pop up with: System program problem detected
Shell command: sudo rm /var/crash/*
This will remove any old crash reports, causing a pop up, that needlessly might be reported. Reboot to take action into effect. (in error).
Any further pop-ups still need to be investigated.

Install S.M.A.R.T. for hard disk error detection on xubuntu 18.04 lts linux:

Install S.M.A.R.T.:
S.M.A.R.T.: (ubuntu) smartmontools: Control and monitor storage systems using S.M.A.R.T.
S.M.A.R.T.: (all) smart-notifier: Graphical hard disk health status notifier.
S.M.A.R.T. enable; show error log usage: sudo smartctl -s on -t offline /dev/sda; sudo smartctl -l error /dev/sda
S.M.A.R.T. show all smart; health status usage: sudo smartctl -a /dev/sda | less; sudo smartctl -H /dev/sda
S.M.A.R.T. test short, long usage: sudo smartctl -t short /dev/sda; sudo smartctl -t long /dev/sda
S.M.A.R.T. show selftest log usage: sudo smartctl -l selftest /dev/sda
S.M.A.R.T. show all device usage: sudo smartctl -x /dev/sda | less

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