WimsBits linux xubuntu 16.04.1 lts

xubuntu 16.04.1 lts manual  

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linux xubuntu 16.04.1 lts

Install and configure xubuntu 16.04.1 lts linux on a PC.
The (daily used) xubuntu-16.04.1-desktop-amd64, for use on the AMD64 and the i386 for (Dell optiplex 745 Intel Core2 CPU), works fine.

Install xubuntu 16.04.1 lts linux packages on:
the motherboards:
(in var/log/kern.log.1)

DMI: Dell Inc. OptiPlex 745, BIOS 2.6.6 06/26/2011
Memory: 4017600K/4118132K available
tsc: Detected 1861.896 MHz processor
Calibrating delay loop (skipped), value calculated using timer frequency.. 3723.79 BogoMIPS
smpboot: CPU0: Intel(R) Core(TM)2 CPU 6300
smpboot: Total of 2 processors activated, 7447.58 BogoMIPS

agpgart-intel Intel 965Q Chip-set
detected 8192K stolen memory
AGP aperture is 256M

All of the Dell OptiPlex 745 is working nicely with xubuntu 16.04.1 installed, without 3rd party software.

xubuntu 16.04.1 lts linux, Intel 64 bit, PC playing music and video. That is what you get when you install the larger part of what can be found below.

(X)Ubuntu versions and code names:

ubuntu 4.10 Warty Warthog
ubuntu 5.04 Hoary Hedgehog
ubuntu 5.10 Breezy Badger
ubuntu 6.06 LTS Dapper Drake (my first xubuntu)
ubuntu 6.10 Edgy Eft
ubuntu 7.04 Feisty Fawn
ubuntu 7.10 Gutsy Gibbon
ubuntu 8.04 LTS Hardy Heron
ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid Ibex
ubuntu 9.04 Jaunty Jackalope
ubuntu 9.10 Karmic Koala
Ubuntu 10.04 LTS Lucid Lynx
Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick Meerkat
Ubuntu 11.04 Natty Narwhal
Ubuntu 11.10 Oneiric Ocelot
Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Precise Pangolin (5 year), xubuntu 12.04 LTS (3 year)
Ubuntu 12.10 Quantal Quetzal: dash search has come: uninstall: sudo apt-get purge unity-lens-shopping, log off an on
Ubuntu 13.04 Raring Ringtail
Ubuntu 13.10 Saucy Salamander
Ubuntu 14.04 LTS Trusty Tahr (5 year), xubuntu 14.04.1 lts (3 year), xubuntu: dash search: sudo apt-get purge unity-scope-home
Package 'unity-scope-home' is not installed, so not removed)
Ubuntu 14.10 Utopic Unicorn
Ubuntu 15.04 Vivid Vervet
Ubuntu 15.10 Wily Werewolf
Ubuntu 16.04.1 LTS Xenial Xerus: (5 year), xubuntu 16.04.1 LTS (3 year): dash search: sudo apt-get purge unity-scope-home: Package 'unity-scope-home' is not installed, so not removed
Ubuntu 16.10 Yakkety Yak
Ubuntu 17.04 Zesty Zapus
Ubuntu 17.10 Artful Aardvark
Ubuntu 18.04, LTS Bionic Beaver: (5 year), xubuntu 18.04.1 LTS (3 year): check menu, system settings, privacy: opt out of data collection
Ubuntu 18.10 Cosmic Cuttlefish
var/log/dmesg or: Bash shell: cat /etc/lsb-release

Linux xubuntu 16.04.1 lts kernel version:

Kernel version at installation date, before first update:
4.4.0-31-generic #50-Ubuntu SMP Wed Jul 13 00:06:14 UTC 2016 i686 for Intel EM64T
Kernel version at installation date, after first update:
var/log/dmesg or: Shell: uname -r, uname -a
4.4.0-31-generic #50-Ubuntu SMP Wed Jul 13 00:06:14 UTC 2016 i686
Current kernel version:
4.4.0-150-158-generic #174-Ubuntu SMP

Bash shell aptitude commands to install xubuntu 16.04.1 lts, AMD64, linux software packages:

The shell apt software (installing) commands:
Shell apt software commands examples:
sudo apt-get update: resynchronizes the package index files from their sources
apt-cache search ...
apt-cache show (package)
apt-cache depends (package)
apt-cache rdepends (package)
sudo apt-get check (package)
sudo apt-get install (package)
sudo apt-get purge (package): removing a package and its configuration files too
sudo apt-get autoremove: removes packages that were automatically installed to satisfy dependencies for other packages and are now no longer needed
sudo apt-get remove (package): removing a package, leaving its configuration files on the system
sudo apt-get autoclean: clears out the local repository of retrieved package files, but it only removes package files that can no longer be downloaded

Set xubuntu 16.04.1 lts linux, AMD64, sources to add packages with synaptic package manager:

Set sources to add packages, change in: Applications Menu: Settings, Software & Updates:

ubuntu software:
Canonical-supported free and open-source software - main
community-maintained free and open-source software - universe
proprietary drivers for devices - restricted
software restricted by copyright or legal issues - multiverse
Download from: http://ftp.uni-stuttgart.de/ubuntu/
or: http://ftp.uni-kassel.de/ubuntu/ubuntu/
or: http://ftp.uni-mainz.de/ubuntu/
or: ftp://ftp.fu-berlin.de/linux/ubuntu/

other software:
updates:
Important security updates (xenial-updates) (16.04.1)
Recommended updates (xenial-updates) (16.04.1)
Automatically check for updates: daily
When there are security, other, updates: display immediately
close

Set sources to add packages, change in: Applications Menu: Accessories, Terminal Emulator: sudo mousepad /etc/apt/sources.list
uncomment source lines and get all the following binaries, deb, deb ftp and deb-src:
deb http://ftp.uni-stuttgart.de/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted
deb http://ftp.uni-stuttgart.de/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted
xenial universe
xenial-updates universe
xenial multiverse
xenial-updates multiverse
xenial-security main restricted
xenial-security universe
xenial-security multiverse

Customise user account to some admin tasks and sudo member:

Give account some admin tasks and sudo membership, Applications Menu: Settings, Users and Groups: accounts: Advanced Settings: User Privileges: select: configure printers, monitor system logs, use cd-rom drives, use video devices ok
manage groups: sudo: properties: select (all) accounts, ok, close, log off and on
manage groups: users: properties: select used user account, ok, close (optional)

Change xfce 4.10 Desktop GUI in xubuntu 16.04.1 lts

To change the xfce Desktop GUI:
Applications Menu, Settings, Appearance
tab: Style:
Raleigh, Adwaita, or Orion
tab: Icons
elementary xfce
All Settings
Panel
tab: Items
Add new item to this panel:
workspace switcher
Delete item to this panel:
power manager plugin
Add, Close
All Settings
Window Manager
tab: Style:
Default
tab: Focus:
New Window focus:
Automatically give focus to newly created windows
All Settings
Window Manager Tweaks
tab: Focus
When a windows raises itself:
Do nothing
tab: Workspaces: unselect: Use the mouse wheel on de desktop to switch workspaces
All Settings
Keyboard:
tab: Behaviour:
Repeat delay: 500
Repeat speed: 50
Blink delay: 500
tab: Application Short-cuts:
check: xfce4-popup-whiskermenu: Ctrl+Escape
All Settings
By the way: super is the windows key, primary is the control key.
Test and enjoy the result.
All Settings
Power Manager
tab: Security
Automatically lock the session: When the screensaver is activated
select: Lock screen when system is going for sleep
Removable Drives and Media
tab: Storage
unselect: all but: mount removeable drives when hot-plugged
tab: Multimedia
unselect: all
Close
Session and Start-up: tab: Splash: mice
All Settings
Close

Change incomplete url prefix in firefox location bar in xubuntu 16.04.1 lts

Show prefix http, turn on tracking protection and turn off location aware browsing: in firefox location bar:
type in the address bar: about:config
look for:
browser.urlbar.trimURLs click twice and change it to: false
geo.enabled click twice and change it to: false
privacy.trackingprotection.enabled click twice and change it to: true
close tab

xubuntu 16.04.1 lts, Intel x86, linux additional software packages:

Install Intel 965Q Chip-set vga-cards driver on optiplex 745 intel core 2 duo:

Driver install Intel 965Q Chip-set vga-cards
not needed: /var/log/Xorg.0.log
[27.377] (II) intel: Driver for Intel(R) Integrated Graphics Chip-sets:
Pineview G, 965G, G35, 965Q, 946GZ, 965GM, 965GME/GLE, G33, Q35, Q33, a.o.
Open shell to add software packages: Applications Menu: Accessories, Terminal Emulator: sudo apt-get install ...
discouraged to install: xserver-xorg-video-intel
unknown: i965-va-driver

Installing flash or gnash:

Close firefox before installing flash or gnash:
gnash: GNU Gnash: plays youtube.com, but not uitzendinggemist.nl
version: 0.8.11~git20160109-1build1
supports most SWF v7 features and some SWF v8 and v9. SWF v10 is not supported by GNU Gnash.
browser-plugin-gnash: gnash and plugin not installed this time
sudo apt-get purge and sudo apt-get autoremove, for both gnash packages
flashplugin-installer: plays youtube.com and uitzendinggemist.nl: required

verify flash version: http://helpx.adobe.com/flash-player.html
version check, version at installation date: version: 11.2.202.632, browser: Mozilla Firefox
current flash version: 31.0.0.108 is latest Version i686 xubuntu

Installing java:

To install java, run in Shell: apt-cache show default-jre
points to java (compatible) recommended runtime: openjdk-8-jre for i386
points to java (compatible)recommended runtime: openjdk-7-jre for AMD64
apt-cache show openjdk-8-jre
suggest for i386 and AMD64:
apt-cache show icedtea-8-plugin
close firefox before installing java:
close browser, just in case
required, so install: default-jre
version: 1.6.2-3 or 1.8.0_91 i386
version: 7u71-2.5.3 AMD64
required, so install: icedtea-plugin
installs: icedtea-8-plugin
sudo update-alternatives --config java: Nothing to configure

verify java version: http://www.javatester.org/version.html
verify java version: http://java.com/en/download/installed.jsp
verify java version: http://www.java.com/en/download/installed.jsp?detect=jre
version check, version at installation date: 1.6.2-3 or 1.8.0_91, or version: java version 8 update 91 on i686
current java version: java 8 update 111

xubuntu 16.04.1 lts, AMD64, linux additional software packages:

Other additional software packages:

Install additional software packages, run in Shell: file-roller: already installed: archive manager for GNOME
abiword: featureful word processor
replaces: LibreOffice Writer from: libreoffice, containing: calc, math and writer here libreoffice-writer
gnumeric: spreadsheet application
replaces: LibreOffice Calc libreoffice-calc, libreoffice-math,
sudo apt-get purge libreoffice-calc
sudo apt-get purge libreoffice-math
sudo apt-get purge libreoffice-writer
sudo apt-get purge libreoffice-base-core
sudo apt-get purge libreoffice-core
one libreoffice icon remains without function to be deleted

firestarter was removed from repository, zentyal-firewall is meant for the small business server.
gufw : linux firewall
gnome-sound-recorder: replaces : gnome-media
gftp-gtk: linux ftp client
smartmontools: linux SMART program
sysinfo: system info
usb-creator-gtk: startup disk creator
xawtv: XawTV is an X11 application which displays television channels (not installed on the Dell)

Install linux xubuntu 16.04.1 lts gstreamer0.10-plugins for gmusicbrowser or parole, or movie, sound, or music in firefox:

Not all movies, sound, or music plays in firefox, gmusicbrowser or parole, so install:
Not installed, old version, gstreamer0.10-plugins for gmusicbrowser or parole: so all movies can be played on linux xubuntu 16.04.1 lts:
gmusicbrowser: default graphic jukebox for large collections of mp3/ogg/flac/mpc files
parole: default media player based on GStreamer framework
gstreamer1.0-plugins-good: already installed, Replaces: gstreamer1.0-plugins-bad
gstreamer1.0-plugins-good is already the newest version (1.8.2-1ubuntu0.1)
Recommends: gstreamer1.0-x
gstreamer1.0-x is already the newest version (1.8.2-1ubuntu0.1)
gstreamer1.0-fluendo-mp3: Need to get 80,2 kB of archives, installed
gstreamer1.0-plugins-ugly: not installed this time
libdvdread4: libdvdread4 is already the newest version (5.0.3-1)
Recommends: libdvdnav4: not installed
chmod 660 /dev/sr0; chgrp cdrom /dev/sr0 (replace with the path to your dvd drive) in order to get videos to play: not solving anything on the dell
for help if it still does not play dvd:
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/RestrictedFormats/PlayingDVDs
Parole and gxine, installed below, play video dvd's. But not by menu, but by browsing the video file, e.g. dvd/video_ts/vts_01_1.vob straight away.

Configure File Manager on Xfce linux xubuntu 16.04.1 lts desktop with Xfce All Settings:

File Manager:
menu: edit, preferences, Default View: view new folders using: detailed list view
tab: advanced: unselect: enable volume management, close
Close

Install xubuntu 16.04.1 lts linux miscellaneous software and tools:

run gufw, firewall, first
sudo iptables -L -v: firewall table

not used: gconf-editor: editor for the GConf configuration system

ldd program: print shared library dependencies

show hanging programs:
run in Shell:
ps -f
pstree -hp
jobs
fg 1 (i.e.)
control + z
jobs
ps -f

change date and time of file:
touch -d "1998-01-02 14:02:00" testfile.txt
show result: ls --full-time
show readable characters: strings testfile.txt
show both hex and asci characters: xxd testfile.txt
show file statistics, access time etc.: file testfile.txt

show help of a command, e.g. aptitude:
man aptitude
info aptitude
aptitude -h
aptitude --help

overwrite file or disk random and with zero's with shred:
shred -v -z file zeroed.doc
shred --verbose /dev/sda5
remove, delete file:
rm zeroed.doc
remove, delete directories and file:
rm -r *

Some handsome Shell commands, for e.g. wiping, formatting and writing files on a disk:

more information about a command is found by running man before or --help after a command in Shell
sudo blkid
sudo cfdisk /dev/sdc, primary, type 83
sudo chown -c -R root:userx dataxx
sudo chmod -c -R g+w datayy
sudo chmod -c -R g+rwx subfolder
sudo chmod -c -R o+rx subfolder
cp file filecopy

160039239680 bytes (160 GB) copied, 26405.2 s, 6.1 MB/s, taking 7 hours, 21 minutes on seagate barracuda 7200.7
sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdc
dd: writing to `/dev/sdc': No space left on device
160041885696 bytes (160 GB) copied, 16096.5 s, 9.9 MB/s, taking 4 hours, 29 minutes on seagate barracuda 7200.10
sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdc
dd: writing to ‘/dev/sdc’: No space left on device
312581809+0 records in
312581808+0 records out
160041885696 bytes (160 GB) copied, 10789,8 s, 14,8 MB/s, taking 2 hours, 59 minutes on seagate laptop thin hdd 320 GB 7200 RPM

sudo fdisk -lu
Disk /dev/sdc: 160.0 GB, 160041885696 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19457 cylinders, total 312581808 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000
Disk /dev/sdc doesn't contain a valid partition table

find ~/ -name main*
find ~/ -mtime -3 -name main*

/dev/sdc1 is mounted; will not make a filesystem here!
lsof -U | less
killall Thunar

sudo mke2fs -b 4096 -c -L dataxy -n -v -t ext4 -T big /dev/sdc1
(demo, remove -n for real format), 320 GB taking 58 minutes on a seagate laptop thin hdd 320 GB 7200 RPM

sudo mke2fs -b 4096 -c -L dataxy -n -v -t ext4 -T big /dev/sdc1
(demo, remove -n for real format), 160 GB taking less than 1 hour and 15 minutes on a seagate barracuda 160 GB 7200.7, 45 minutes on a seagate barracuda 160 GB 7200.10

sudo mke2fs -b 4096 -c -L dataxy -v -t ext4 -T big /dev/sdc1
mke2fs 1.42.9 (4-Feb-2014)
fs_types for mke2fs.conf resolution: 'ext4', 'big'
Filesystem label=dataxy
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
4886528 inodes, 39072718 blocks
1953635 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
1193 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
4096 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
4096000, 7962624, 11239424, 20480000, 23887872

sudo mkfs.ext3 -b 4096 -c -j -L dataxy -n -v /dev/sdc1
(demo, remove -n for real format), 160 GB taking less than 2 hours on a seagate barracuda 160 GB 7200.7 and 45 minutes on seagate barracuda 160 GB 7200.10

sudo mount -t ext4 /dev/sdc1 /media/data
mkdir datazz
mv file1 file2 (file rename)

sudo parted /dev/sdc print
Model: ATA ST3160815A (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdc: 160GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Number Start End Size Type File system Flags
1 32,3kB 160GB 160GB primary ext4

rsync -av /media/sda4/datax/ /media/data/datayz/datay/ (archive mode)
rsync -rv /media/sda4/datax/ /media/data/datayz/datay/ (recurse into directories)
disk with ext4: sent 80,993,043,525 bytes received 68,163 bytes 90,952,399.43 bytes/sec, 86,7 MB/sec on a seagate laptop thin hdd 320 GB 7200 RPM.
disk with ext4: sent 80,993,043,519 bytes received 68,107 bytes 90,343,682.80 bytes/sec, 86,2 MB/sec on a seagate laptop thin hdd 320 GB 7200 RPM, so 75,4 GB takes almost 20 minutes.
disk with ext4: sent 80,822,496,291 bytes received 72,173 bytes 66,989,281.78 bytes/sec 63,9 MB/sec on a seagate barracuda 160 GB 7200.10, 75,3 GB takes 20,1 minutes.
disk with ext4: sent 80,874,609,891 bytes received 67,156 bytes 67,423,657.40 bytes/sec, 64,3 MB/sec on a seagate barracuda 160 GB 7200.10, 75,3 GB takes 20 minutes.
disk with ext4: sent 81,034,418,081 bytes received 68,180 bytes 66,832,565.99 bytes/sec, 63,7 MB/sec on a seagate barracuda 160 GB 7200.10, 75,3 GB takes 20,2 minutes.
disk with ext3: sent 78,872,829,052 bytes received 75,859 bytes 44699861.10 bytes/sec, 42,6 MB/sec on a seagate barracuda 160 GB 7200.10, so 73,4 GB takes 29 minutes and 24 seconds.
disk with ext4: sent 78,936,974,809 bytes received 76,391 bytes 49536900.66 bytes/sec, 47,2 MB/sec on a barracuda 160 GB 7200.7.
disk with ext4: sent 80,874,609,891 bytes received 67,048 bytes 50944678.39 bytes/sec, 48,6 MB/sec on a barracuda 7200.7.

Some handsome Shell network commands:

dig
host
ifdown eth0
ifup eth0
ip a
ip addr show
ip addr add dev eth0 192.168.0.1/16
ip addr del dev eth0 172.16.2/12
ip link show
ip neigh show
ip route show
ip route add dev eth0 10.0.0.3 via 172.19.0.4
ip route del dev eth0 172.23.6.5 via 10.0.49.6
service iptables save
iptables -L -v
iptables -A INPUT -m limit --limit 15/minute -j LOG
iptables -A OUTPUT -m limit --limit 15/minute -j LOG
mtr: network diagnostic tool, with pings from the entire route
e.g.: mtr www.speedtest.nl
nstat
ping 192.168.214.7
ping6 -I eth0 fc00::6
ss
su - username: substitute user login with profile
tracepath, tracepath6: traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path
e.g.: tracepath 192.168.99.8

a network configuration example, for e.g. centos 6.3 or redhat 6.3:
/etc/hosts:
127.0.0.1 localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
127.0.0.2 centos1.localdomain centos1
::1 localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6

/etc/sysconfig/network
NETWORKING=yes
HOSTNAME=centos1.localdomain

/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts\ifcfg-eth0
DEVICE="eth0"
BOOTPROTO=static
NM_CONTROLLED=no
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR=192.168.0.3
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY=192.168.0.1
DNS1=62.58.48.30
in xubuntu, please configure the network manually, prevents you from getting a headache

Vim manual, short:

arrow keys: hjkl
first press key: escape
add: a
copy line: yy
delete: x
delete line: dd
down 5 lines: 5j
end of line: $
end of file: shift + G
find forward: /wordtofind
find backward: ?wordtofind
insert: i
insert line: o
insert from other window : insert mode, <ctrl>+<shift>+<ins>
join line: J
paste line: p
replace: r
scroll forward one screen: control + f
scroll backward one screen: control + b
search forward: /wordtofind
start of line: 0
write: :w
quit: :q
quite without save: :q!
undo: u
undo 3x: 3u
http://www.cedet.dk/ours/vim.html
ASCI html codes, regularly used: # % & ( ) + - / : ; < = > ?@ | é ë € ï " ® ™
ASCI html codes, add: & before: #35; # #37; % amp; & #40; ( #41; ) #43; + #45; - #47; / #58; : #59; ; #60; < #61; = #62; > #63; ? #64; @ #124; | eacute; é euml; ë euro; € iuml; ï quot; " reg; ® trade; ™

Install and configure linux xubuntu 16.04.1 lts hardware:

Install and configure hardware:
first check out about hardware and detection:
Run in Shell: tail -f /var/log/messages
Run in Shell: dmesg, or: lspci -v, lspci -vvnn, or: lsusb -v, or: lshw, or: lsmod
(To see whether the hardware was detected)

Mount a physical disk on xubuntu 16.04.1 lts linux, e.g. a secondary slave:

Mount a physical disk in linux, requirements:
Print partition table in sector order format:
Run in Shell:
sudo cfdisk -Ps /dev/sda
or: sudo fdisk -lu
or: sudo fdisk -lC /dev
or: sudo parted /dev/sdc print

Startup linux fdisk: sudo cfdisk /dev/sda
select: menu: new, primary, size in MB, beginning, write, quit
type: 0B, 83, 82 (W95 FAT32, Linux, Linux / swap Solaris)
Reboot
partitions: swap: 2000, os: 20000, home: 25000, data: what is left
Remark: only four primary partitions per physical disk are possible and the boot partition should be within 1024 cylinders because of bios limitations
choose from: man mkfs.ext4; man mkfs.ext3; man mkfs.ext2; man mke2fs; man mkswap, man mkdosfs or man mkfs.vfat

Make fat32, check for bad blocks, fat32, name volume: data4gb, sectors-per-cluster: 2048, verbose, device /dev/sda5:
sudo mkdosfs -c -F 32 -n data4gb -S 2048 -v /dev/sda5
or for an usb sticky, linux & winxp readable:
sudo mkdosfs -c -F 32 -n data4gb -v /dev/sdc1

Make ext2, block size: 2048, check for bad blocks, label volume: data0, tell what to do first, verbose, device /dev/sda5:
sudo mke2fs -b 2048 -c -L data0 -n -v /dev/sda5
sudo mke2fs -b 2048 -c -L data0 -v /dev/sda5

Make ext3: block size 4096, check for bad blocks, make ext3 journal, new label name, display or verbose what should be done, device to be formatted
sudo mkfs.ext3 -b 4096 -c -j -L data1 -n -v /dev/sda4
Really make ext3:
sudo mkfs.ext3 -b 4096 -c -j -L data1 -v /dev/sda4
default ext3 block size usually is: 4096

Make ext4: block size: 4096, check for bad blocks, label volume: dataxy, tell what will be done first, verbose, type filesystem: ext4, type filesystem usage: big:
sudo mke2fs -b 4096 -c -L dataxy -n -v -t ext4 -T big /dev/sdc1
Default ext3 and ext4 block size usually is 4096, see /etc/mke2fs.conf.
Format options:
Type filesystem usage: ext4 has a default usage of huge_file with an inode_ratio of 65536.
Type filesystem usage: default file has inode_ratio 16384, used for disks around 4 TB.
Type filesystem usage: big file has inode_ratio 32768, for disks of about 16 TB.
mkfs creates:
block size 4096, 4886528 inodes, 39072718 blocks, 1193 block groups, 32768 blocks per group, 4096 inodes per group, with big file
This would be 9773056 inodes with default file type filesystem usage on a 160 GB disk.

Add swap file:
sudo cfdisk /dev/sda
select: menu: new, primary, type, ..., write, quit
Reboot
sudo mkswap -c /dev/sda1
Use swap temporarily:
sudo swapoff /dev/sdb2
sudo swapon /dev/sda1

Mount a directory not mounted yet on linux xubuntu 16.04.1 lts:

Mount a directory in linux:
Create directory:
sudo mkdir /media/sda5
when a type error occurs: rm -r sda55
Mount temporarily: sudo mount -t vfat /dev/sda5 /media/sda5
Mount temporarily: sudo mount -t ext3 /dev/sda4 /media/data
To find out what to add to fstab to identify the disk, the UUID, run:
sudo blkid
other parameters:
media/to/mount
file type
(defaults: sets specific standard rights: rw, suid, dev, exec, auto, nouser, and async
for vfat only:
iocharset=utf8: sets the character set and makes it case sensitive, just like ext is
umask=007: sets the rights: rgo: rwx,rwx,---
gid=46: for plugdev
for all file systems:
the 0 second last: for dump to decide to disable (or enable: 1) backing up of the device/partition
the 2 at the end: for running a file check not first, a 0 for not & a 1 for first: /, usually)

Mount, so add to /etc/fstab:
#/dev/sdb6
UUID=1D07-1A59 /media/sdbfat vfat defaults,iocharset=utf8,umask=007,gid=46 0 2
#/dev/sda6
UUID=47B8-34D6 /media/sdafat vfat defaults,iocharset=utf8,umask=007,gid=46 0 2
# /dev/sda4
UUID="942a7493-7012-41c1-aabc-e2701c92270c" /media/sda4 ext3 defaults,errors=remount-ro 1 2
UUID="27550e33-f2e9-4a9f-996b-c5f4deb4d757" /media/sdb4 ext3 defaults,errors=remount-ro 1 2
# /dev/sda1
UUID=9baa22c4-0cb7-4aaa-a31f-af438bbd6f29 none swap sw 0 0

Which could end up like this:

# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# Use 'blkid' to print the universally unique identifier for a
# device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name devices
# that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
#
# <file system> <mount point> <type> <options> <dump> <pass>
proc /proc proc nodev,noexec,nosuid 0 0

# / was on /dev/sda2 during installation
UUID=acf8b336-9e08-42a8-9e9b-046e13c22af3 / ext4 errors=remount-ro 0 1
# /home was on /dev/sda3 during installation
UUID=79f85248-b46b-490c-96f8-44ead3567dc9 /home ext4 defaults 0 2
# swap was on /dev/sda1 during installation
UUID=73ea4942-17cb-48b3-bc04-ece209aa34ce none swap sw 0 0

# added partition / disks
# dev/sda4 LABEL="data1"
UUID="942a7493-7012-41c1-aabc-e2701c92270c" /media/sda4 ext3 defaults,errors=remount-ro 1 2

# dev/sdb4 LABEL="data2"
UUID="27550e33-f2e9-4a9f-996b-c5f4deb4d757" /media/sdb4 ext3 defaults,errors=remount-ro 1 2

# dev/sdb3 LABEL="hodat2"
UUID="44047af4-9bfb-4d03-b78a-dcf020a9a300" /media/sdb3 ext3 defaults,errors=remount-ro 1 2

# dev/sdb2 LABEL="root"
UUID="06b15a58-23e5-4b72-a4ee-0f3d0aee082c" /media/sdb2 ext3 noauto,ro,nouser 0 0
# dev/sdb1 swap

Reboot
Run in Shell:
cd /
cd media/sdb3
mkdir hodata
ls -l
sudo chown username hodata
cd ~
Create link:
ln -s /media/sdb3/hodata hodat
ln -s /media/sdb4 mydata1
ln -s /media/sda4 mydata2

Install separate linux xubuntu 16.04.1 lts packages, a manual:

Install a compressed program by copying it in a directory on xubuntu 16.04.1 lts linux:

Install a compressed program by copying it:
Unzip: PasswordSafeSWT-0.7-linux.tar.gz file in: /home/username/unzip/
Run in Shell:
sudo mkdir /usr/local/pwsafeswt07
cd /home/username/unzip/
sudo cp -r /home/username/unzip/* /usr/local/pwsafeswt07/
cd /usr/local/
sudo chown -c -R root:username pwsafeswt07/

or:
Unzip: PasswordSafeSWT-0.8.1-linux-x86_64.tar.gz file in: /home/username/unzip/PasswordSafeSWT-0.8.1/
cd /home/username/unzip/
mv PasswordSafeSWT-0.8.1/ pwsafeswt-08
cd /usr/local/
sudo mkdir pwsafeswt-08
cp -r /home/username/unzip/pwsafeswt-08 pwsafeswt-08

if your account is member of the group users, otherwise use: username:
sudo chown -c -R root:username pwsafeswt-08/
(sudo chmod -c -R g+rx pwsafe.sh)
cd pwsafeswt-08
run: sh pwsafe.sh
icon command line: sh /usr/local/pwsafeswt-08/pwsafe.sh

Not done on xubuntu linux 16.04.1 lts, but it should work:

Install and configure a printer on xubuntu 16.04.1 lts linux: Brother HL-2140 laser printer:

Install and configure printer: Brother HL-2140:
start up computer, login and plug in usb cable.
menu: applications menu, settings, printers
There are no printers configured yet
click: Add
click: Brother HL-2140 (G9J******): Forward
New Printer, Describe Printer, Printer Name: Brother HL-2140 series: Apply
Print test page produces empty paper
menu: Printer, Properties, Settings, Make and Model:
click Change (Brother HL-2140 Foomatic/Postscript)
Choose driver, Select printer from database, Makes: Brother, Forward
Choose driver, Models: HL-2140
Choose driver, Drivers: Brother HL-2140 Foomatic/Postscript [en] (current / recommended) is WRONG
Choose driver, Brother HL-2140 Foomatic/hl1250 [en], Forward
Existing Settings, Use the new PPD (Postscript Printer Description) as is, Apply, OK

select: menu: Server, Settings: Advanced Server Settings Job history: do not preserve job history, ok
click: HL-2140_Series
select: printer, properties, policies: policies, error policy: abort job
select: printer options: general, page size: A4
select: printer options: general, resolution: 600x600 dpi, OK

Firefox bookmarks, thunderbird old email files, thunderbird dictionaries, firefox dictionaries.

Install firefox previous installation bookmarks file and exporting bookmarks file on linux xubuntu 16.04.1 lts:

Install firefox previous bookmarks, firefox menu:
First, to view hidden files: in file manager (thunar) : menu: view, show hidden files
path: /home/username/.mozilla/firefox/hrf3ljke.default/bookmarkbackups/
Copy from your previous xubuntu installation e.g. the file: bookmarks-2012-12-16.json
Install on your new xubuntu installation:
bookmarks, show all bookmarks, import and backup, restore, choose file, browse, select file, open

Or from your previous xubuntu installation:
bookmarks, show all bookmarks, import and backup, export bookmarks to html, browse, save
Install on your new xubuntu installation:
bookmarks, show all bookmarks, import and backup, import bookmarks from html, browse, select file: bookmarks.html, open
Producing firefox bookmarks file, firefox menu:
bookmarks, show all bookmarks, import and backup, export bookmarks to html, browse, save

Install, configure, copy thunderbird previous installation email files on xubuntu 16.04.1 lts linux:

Install, configure, copy thunderbird previous installation email files:
Run thunderbird once first, cancel all and quit it
Copy the directory, like: /l1f7vf9i.default/ and an: profiles.ini file in the following subdirectory from the old xubuntu installation:
/home/username/.mozilla-thunderbird/
to the new one:
/home/username/.thunderbird/

Install thunderbird dictionaries on linux xubuntu 16.04.1 lts:

Install thunderbird 17.0.x or later, dictionaries: thunderbird, menu:
new message, menu: options, check spelling, language: download more dictionaries
menu: tools, add-ons, get add-ons, English dictionary, search, install
or: tools for all add-ons, install add-on from file, select the downloaded .xpi file
install one dictionary by menu if needed, then you can add this and other unzipped .aff & .dic dictionary files to:
/home/username/.thunderbird/r1l2uda8.default/extensions/nl-NL@dictionaries.addons.mozilla.org/dictionaries/
make the files read only
or where it could also be installed, the application directory:
/usr/lib/thunderbird/dictionaries/
default the en-GB or en_US files are present here
Rename the file extension here with sudo rights, if you are uncomfortable with some languages.
restart thunderbird

Install firefox dictionaries on xubuntu 16.04.1 lts linux:

Install firefox 17.0.x or later, dictionaries: after having them installed in thunderbird:
install one dictionary by menu if needed, then you can add other unzipped .aff & .dic dictionary files:
menu: tools, add-ons, get add-ons, English dictionary, search, install
or: copy the following missing subdirectory with subdirectory and files:
/home/username/.thunderbird/r1l2uda8.default/
/extensions/nl-NL@dictionaries.addons.mozilla.org/dictionaries/
to:
/home/username/.mozilla/firefox/28gp9hco.default/
/extensions/nl-NL@dictionaries.addons.mozilla.org/dictionaries/
make the files read only
or where it could also be installed, the application directory:
/usr/lib/firefox/dictionaries/ linking to: /usr/share/hunspell/
Rename the file links here with sudo rights, if you are uncomfortable with some languages.
or where it could also be installed, the addons directory:
/usr/lib/firefox-addons/extensions
default the en-GB or en_US files are present here
restart firefox, the added languages should work, but can be invisible with the the add-ons.

Miscellaneous configurations.

Open ports on Gufw firewall on linux xubuntu 16.04.1 lts:

Open ports on Gufw:
For p2p and some other networking, opening a port can be useful.
Rules: plus: tab: Simple, Policy: Allow, Direction: In, Protocol: both, Port: 51413, Add, Close
add new inbound rule
allow service, name: e.g. unknown
port: 51413
when the source is: anyone
comment: torrent
press button: add, V
menu: firewall, quit

Install and configure a Conceptronic CTVFMi2 tv-radio card to use xawtv: the fix on xubuntu 16.04.1 lts linux:

Install and configure a Conceptronic CTVFMi2 tv-radio card, adapt the file in e.g. Shell with sudo Thunar for xawtv:
first check Conceptronic CTVFMi2 tv-radio card installation:
run: Shell: dmesg or open this file at /var/log/ and look for:
[ 9.203671] saa7133[0]: subsystem: 17de:7136, board: UNKNOWN/GENERIC [card=0,autodetected]
this states it is not detected
open and or create with sudo rights:
/etc/modprobe.d/options.conf
create and add the following line to the file:
options saa7134 card=78 tuner=54 alsa=1
save and close the file, reboot computer, when correct, computer does not hang :-)
run: Shell: dmesg or open this file at /var/log/ and look for:
[ 9.599119] saa7133[0]: subsystem: 17de:7136, board: ASUSTeK P7131 Dual [card=78,insmod option]
[ 9.995430] tuner 5-004b: Tuner -1 found with type(s) Radio TV.
[ 10.079368] tda829x 5-004b: setting tuner address to 61
[ 10.163277] tda829x 5-004b: type set to tda8290+75a
Bash shell: v4l-conf
/dev/video0 [v4l2]: configuration done
this makes xawtv show movie, wit sound

Configure xawtv and remember settings: the fix on linux xubuntu 16.04.1 lts:

Configure xawtv for channel reception:
run: Shell: /usr/bin/xawtv
right click on xawtv window: options: click on: auto unmute and mute, till sound mute is off
further options: pal, television, frequency table: europe-west
click E, channel editor, add channel, update, save, close, and in the home folder a .xawtv file is created

Configure monitor resolution AMD ATI video card: the linux xubuntu 16.04.1 lts solution:

Configure AMD ATI video card monitor resolution:
run: Shell: xrandr
Screen 0: minimum 320 x 200, current 1920 x 1080, maximum 8192 x 8192
VGA-0 connected 1680x1050+0+0 (normal left inverted right x axis y axis) 475mm x 267mm
1920x1080 60.0 +
1680x1050 60.0*
1600x900 60.0
...

HDMI-0 connected 1920x1080+0+0 (normal left inverted right x axis y axis) 885mm x 498mm
1920x1080 60.0*+ 50.0 59.9 30.0 25.0 24.0 30.0 24.0
1920x1080i 60.1 50.0 60.0
1680x1050 59.9
1600x900 60.0
...

Unable to create file /tmp/test: No space left on device

When updating linux, the 'no space left on device error' appears and an 'unable to create file' message appears. kernel linux-headers modules take too much inodes and a lot of disk space.
Shell command: df -h
no full disk
Shell command: df -i
Filesystem    Inodes    IUsed      IFree      IUse%    Mounted on
/dev/sda6     915712  915712  148770 100%      /
after deleting some files:
Shell command: df -i
Filesystem    Inodes    IUsed      IFree      IUse%    Mounted on
/dev/sda6     915712  879291  36421    97%       /
Shell command: for i in /*; do echo $i; find $i | wc -l; done
many inodes in: /usr, in /usr/src
many files in: /usr, in /lib/modules/ and in /boot/

Shell command for latest kernel version: uname -a
dpkg -l | grep linux-headers
dpkg -l | grep linux-image
apt-cache search kernel
rc: package is in remove or deinstall state with and only config file left
ii: package is in install state and it is fully installed
sudo apt-get purge linux-headers-3.13.0-24-generic
sudo apt-get purge linux-headers-3.13.0-24
or better, because it removes headers and images:
sudo apt-get purge linux-image-3.13.0-24
sudo apt-get purge linux-image-extra-3.13.0-24
for extra clean up: sudo apt-get autoremove
this kernel dir may become large: /lib/modules/
cleaned up old kernels
this kernel dir may become large: /boot/
cleaned up files: abi- and initrd.img-

and more until you have about three latest kernel versions left
Shell command: df -h
Filesystem    Size    Used      Avail      Use%    Mounted on
/dev/sda6     14G    3.5G      9.7G      27%      /
Shell command: df -i
Filesystem    Inodes    IUsed      IFree      IUse%    Mounted on
/dev/sda6     915712  216075  699637  24%       /
to clean up the bootmenu, remove old kernels in grup:
sudo update-grub
or:
sudo update-grub2

System program problem detected, on pop up, cancel, report problem

Pop up with: System program problem detected
Shell command: sudo rm /var/crash/*
This will remove any old crash reports, causing a pop up, that needlessly might be reported. Reboot to take action into effect. (in error).
Any further pop-ups still need to be investigated.

Install S.M.A.R.T. for hard disk error detection on xubuntu 16.04.1 lts linux:

Install S.M.A.R.T.:
S.M.A.R.T.: (ubuntu) smartmontools: Control and monitor storage systems using S.M.A.R.T.
S.M.A.R.T.: (all) smart-notifier: Graphical hard disk health status notifier.
S.M.A.R.T. usage e.g.: sudo smartctl -s on -t offline /dev/sda; sudo smartctl -l error /dev/sda
S.M.A.R.T. usage e.g.: sudo smartctl -a /dev/sda | less; sudo smartctl -H /dev/sda
S.M.A.R.T. usage e.g.: sudo smartctl -t short /dev/sda; sudo smartctl -t long /dev/sda
S.M.A.R.T. usage e.g.: sudo smartctl -l selftest /dev/sda

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